Living Handbooks

Living Textbook of Hand Surgery

Handchirurgie Weltweit e.V.

Living Textbook of Hand Surgery is issued by:

Handchirurgie Weltweit e.V.

Karower Str. 13
D-16341 Panketal, Germany
phone: +49 (0) 30 983 118 56
E-Mail: contact(at)

Registered at Amtsgericht Frankfurt /Oder - Vereinsgericht Aktenzeichen VR 5906 FF
Steuernummer 065 / 141 / 01815 (Finanzamt Eberswalde)

Representative Board:

Dr. med. Richarda Böttcher, Panketal
Dr. med. Eva-Maria Baur, Murnau
Dr. med. Martin Langer, Unna

Editor in Chief, responsible for the contents
according to § 5 TMG and § 55 Abs. 2 RStV (Germany):

Dr. med. Richarda Böttcher
Schwerpunkt für rekonstruktive Chirurgie bei
Plexusparese, Tetraplegie und Cerebralparese
Oberärztin Hand-, Replantations- und Mikrochirurgie
Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin
Warener Straße 7
D-12683 Berlin, Germany
E-Mail: richarda.boettcher(at)


Doro Scheurlen


German Medical Science GMS gGmbH
Berlin, Germany

CEO: Dennis Makoschey, Dipl.-Biol.
c/o AWMF-Geschäftsstelle Berlin
Birkenstr. 67
D-10559 Berlin
phone: +49 (030) 2009 7777
e-mail: office(at)

Editorial office at ZB MED:

Dr. Ursula Arning
Viviana Vauth

all at:
ZB MED - Informationszentrum Lebenswissenschaften
Gleueler Str. 60
D-50931 Köln, Germany
phone: +49 (0)221 478-5603


Limitation of liability for internal content

The content of our website has been compiled with meticulous care and to the best of our knowledge. However, we cannot assume any liability for the up-to-dateness, completeness or accuracy of any of the pages.

Pursuant to § 5 of TMG (Telemediengesetz – Tele Media Act by German law), we are liable for our own content on these pages in accordance with general laws. However, pursuant to sections 8 to 10 of the TMG, we are not under obligation to monitor external information provided or stored on our website. As soon as an infringement of the law becomes known to us, we will immediately remove the content in question. Any liability concerning this matter can only be assumed from the point in time at which the infringement becomes known to us.

Limitation of liability for external links

Our website contains links to the websites of third parties. As the content of these websites is not under our control, we cannot assume any liability for such external content. In all cases, the provider of information of the linked websites is liable for the content and accuracy of the information provided. At the point in time when the links were placed, no infringements of the law were recognizable to us. As soon as an infringement of the law becomes known to us, we will immediately remove the link in question.

Copyright and Trademark Law

Our website endeavors to observe the copyright laws of the graphics, sound files, video sequences and texts used in all publications, to utilize self-provided graphics, sound files, video sequences and texts or to resort to license-free graphics, sound documents, video sequences and texts.

All of the offers specified within the internet and brands and trademarks protected by third parties are subject without reservation to the provisions of the Trademark Law now in effect and to the Right of Possession of the registered owner. However, do not draw the conclusion that the brand names are protected by rights of third parties through mere mentioning alone.

Data protection

A visit to our website can result in the storage of information about the access (date, time, page accessed) on our server. This does not include any analysis of personal data (e.g., name, address or e-mail address). If personal data are collected, this only occurs – to the extent possible – with the prior consent of the user of the website. Any forwarding of the data to third parties without the express consent of the user shall not take place.

We would like to expressly point out that the transmission of data via the Internet (e.g., by e-mail) can offer security vulnerabilities. It is therefore impossible to safeguard the data completely against access by third parties. We cannot assume any liability for damages arising as a result of such security vulnerabilities.

The use by third parties of all published contact details for the purpose of advertising is expressly excluded. We reserve the right to take legal steps in the case of the unsolicited sending of advertising information; e.g., by means of spam mail.

Open Access Policy

The book published in the GMS portal "Living Handbooks" is Open Access distributed under the terms of one of the Creative Commons Licenses ( if not mentioned otherwise. Dependent on the choosen CC licence of this book you are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.