- Pathogenesis of urinary tract infections
- Aetiology and antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens
- Antibiotic usage and stewardship
- Classification of urinary tract infections
- Asymptomatic Bacteriuria (ABU)
- Uncomplicated UTI (uUTI)
- Recurrent (Uncomplicated) UTI
- UTI with extraurogenital risk factors
- UTI with renal risk factors
- UTI with (transient) urological risk factors
- UTI with permanent urological risk factors
- Device related UTI
- UTI in children
- UTI in pregnancy
- Nosocomial and Health-care associated UTI
- Prevention of infections associated with urological interventions
- Male accessory gland and genital infections and inflammations
- Chronic prostatis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome
- Interstitial cystitis/chronic bladder pain syndrome
- Gynecological urogenital infections
- Sexually transmitted infections (STI)
- Urogenital tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterial urogenital infections
- Other urogenital infections (including viral infections)
- The microbiome of the urogenital tract
- Current and future antibiotics for urogenital tract infections
Urogenital Infections and Inflammations
The ZB MED – Information Center for Life Sciences, Germany, together with the European Association of Urology (EAU) provided the opportunity to publish a “Living Textbook” on “Urogenital Infections and Inflammations” in an open access form. This “Living Textbook” represents also an update of the Textbook on Urogenital Infections published 2010 by the International Consultation on Urological Infections and the EAU: http://www.icud.info/urogenitalinfections.html.
The “Living Textbook” will cover infections and inflammations of the kidney, the urinary tract, as well as the male and female genital tract considering pathogenesis, diagnostics, treatment, prophylaxis and future aspects. The “Living Textbook” will be structured into about 26 Sections each with two section co-chairs responsible for peer review of the chapters of each section. Each chapter should reflect the background to the topic and highlight all of the critical evidence relating to the subject. The intention is to provide an up to date, concise synthesis of the literature on that topic, and for clinical topics also recommendations based on levels of evidence for contemporary clinical practice, as well as suggested research recommendations.
The editors hope that this “Living textbook” may become a useful instrument for physicians of different specialties taking care about patients suffering from these diseases.
Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen (Norway),
Florian ME Wagenlehner (Germany),
Yong-Hyun Cho (South Korea),
Tetsuro Matsumoto (Japan),
John N Krieger (USA),
Daniel Shoskes (USA),
Kurt G. Naber (Germany).
Each manuscript should have up to approximately 3000 words (excluding abstract, tables/figures and references). The abstract should count about 300 words.
The outline of each chapter should be structured as follows:
2. Summary of Recommendations
6. Further Research
9. Conflict of Interest of each author
Systematic literature search
A systematic literature search should be performed, at least of PUBMED/MEDLINE but ideally of several relevant databases in addition (like Cochrane CENTRAL) to find recent, high quality systematic reviews and/or primary research studies. It is not expected to perform for all chapters a de novo systematic review, if such reviews are already published recently, but it still may be indicated for some items. For questions relating therapy, it should be focused on evidence from (systematic reviews of) randomized controlled trials if available. The method of the systematic literature search needs to be fully described.
Clinical topics should be focused on the importance to clinical practice according to the up to date scientific knowledge as presented in the literature. It should relate to questions/complaints/symptoms of patient/population concerning definition, diagnosis, therapy/prevention, intervention, and outcome in comparison, if different approaches are feasible. Patient-important outcomes should be focused on those, which are critical for decision-making.
Level of evidence and grade of recommendations
Any recommendation should be based on the level of evidence and the grade of recommendation. For this purpose the following system, modified from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine should be used (EAU guidelines 2015):
Level of evidence (LE)
|Level||Type of evidence|
|1a||Evidence obtained from meta-analysis of randomised trials|
|1b||Evidence obtained from at least one randomised trial|
|2a||Evidence obtained from one well-designed controlled study without randomization|
|2b||Evidence obtained from at least one other type of well-designed quasi-experimental study|
|3||Evidence obtained from well-designed non-experimental studies, such as comparative studies, correlation studies and case reports.|
|4||Evidence obtained from expert committee reports or opinions or clinical experience of respected authorities.|
Grade of recommendations
|Grade of recommendations|
|A||Based on clinical studies of good quality and consistency addressing the specific recommendations and including at least one randomised trial|
|B||Based on well-conducted clinical studies, but without randomised clinical trials|
|C||Made despite the absence of directly applicable clinical studies of good quality|
The aim of assigning a LE and grading recommendations is to provide transparency between the underlying evidence and the recommendation given.
It should be noted that when recommendations are graded, the link between the level of evidence and grade of recommendation is not directly linear. Availability of randomized controlled trials may not necessarily translate into a grade “A” recommendation where there are methodological limitations or disparity in published results.
Alternatively, absence of high level evidence does not necessarily preclude a grade A recommendation, if there is overwhelming clinical experience and consensus. In addition, there may be exceptional situations where corroborating studies cannot be performed, perhaps for ethical or other reasons and in this case unequivocal recommendations are considered helpful for the reader. The quality of the underlying scientific evidence - although a very important factor - has to be balanced against benefits and burdens, values and preferences and costs when a grade is assigned.
Since the same rating system should be used in all chapters, for the sake of brevity the same sentence could be used in “Methods” for all manuscripts, because the rating system will be described in details in the Preface of the book:
“The studies were rated according to the level of evidence and the strength of recommendations graded according to a system used earlier  modified from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine .”
1. Kurt G. Naber, Anthony J Schaeffer, Chris F. Heyns, Tetsuro Matsumoto, Daniel A. Shoskes, Truls E. Bjerklund Johanses (eds.). International Consultation on Urogenital Infections. Stockholm, Sweden, March 2009. European Association of Urology - International Consultation on Urological Diseases, Edition 2010, Arnhem, The Netherlands, ISBN: 978-90-79754-41-0; http://www.icud.info/urogenitalinfections.html
2. Bob Phillips, Chris Ball, Dave Sackett, Doug Badenoch, Sharon Straus, Brian Haynes, Martin Dawes. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine – Levels of Evidence. November 1998. Updated by Jeremy Howick March 2009. http://www.cebm.net/oxford-centre-evidence-based-medicine-levels-evidence-march-2009/
Here you will find audio-visual content integrated in the Living Handbook in alphabetical order. As soon as a chapter is published you will be able to browse the media database.
Kurt G. Naber MD, PhD
Technical University of Munich
Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen MD, PhD
Oslo University Hospital
Florian M. E. Wagenlehner MD, PhD
Justus-Liebig University of Giessen
Clinic of Urology and Andrology
Tetsuro Matsumoto MD, PhD
University of Occupational and Environmental Health
Department of Urology
Yong-Hyun Cho MD, PhD
St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea
Department of Urology
John N. Krieger MD, PhD
University of Washington
Department of Urology